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6th Annual Conference on Clinical & Pediatric Nephrology , will be organized around the theme “Exploring the new technologies in Clinical Nephrology and Renal Therapies”
Clinical Nephrology 2016 is comprised of 11 tracks and 69 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Clinical Nephrology 2016.
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.
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The kidneys are vital for life with their complex network of blood vessels and intricate network of tubes and tubules that filter blood of its waste products and excess water.The kidneys maintain the fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base regulation that are altered by several disease conditions as well as drugs and toxins. Nephrology (from Greek νεφρός nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Nephrology deals with study of the normal working of the kidneys as well as its diseases. The diseases that come under the scope of nephrology include:-
Glomerular disorders that affect the tiny filtering systems of the kidneys called the glomerulus, Urine abnormalities such as excess excretion of protein, sugar, blood, casts, crystals etc.Tubulointerstitial diseases affecting the tubules in the kidneys, Renal vascular diseases affecting the blood vessel networks within the kidneys, Renal failure that can be sudden or acute or long term or chronic, Kidney and bladder stones, Kidney infections, Cancers of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, Effects of diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure on kidneys, Acid base imbalances, Nephrotic syndrome and nephritis, Ill effects of drugs and toxins on the kidneys, Dialysis and its long term complications - dialysis includes hemodialysis as well as peritoneal dialysis, Autoimmune diseases including autoimmune vasculitis, lupus, etc. Polycystic kidneys diseases where large cysts or fluid filled sacs are formed within the kidney impairing its functions - this is a congenital and inherited or genetic condition
- Track 1-1Nephron Clinical Practice
- Track 1-2Critical Care Nephrology
- Track 1-3Stem Cell and Regenerative Nephrology
- Track 1-4Pediatric Nephrology
- Track 1-5Oncologic Nephrology
- Track 1-6Obstructive Nephropathy
- Track 1-7Urology and urogynecology
- Track 1-8Geriatric Nephrology
Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic Kidney Disease kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.
The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure, which are responsible for up to two-thirds of the cases. Diabetes happens when your blood sugar is too high, causing damage to many organs in your body, including the kidneys and heart, as well as blood vessels, nerves and eyes. High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when the pressure of your blood against the walls of your blood vessels increases. If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be a leading cause of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure. 26 million American adults have CKD and millions of others are at increased risk.
- Track 2-1Chronic & Acute Renal Diseases
- Track 2-2Biomarkers of Kidney Disease
- Track 2-3Acute Kidney Injury
- Track 2-4Cardiovascular Disease in patients with chronic kidney Disease
- Track 2-5Polycystic Kidney Disease,Glomelural Diseases
- Track 2-6Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
- Track 2-7Urinalysis,Chronic Kidney Disease in Children
- Track 2-8Nephrolithasis,Glomerulonephritis
Patients with all types of kidney disease and hypertension. This includes kidney stones, chronic or acute kidney diseases due to any cause, resistant or secondary hypertension, unexplained proteinuria or hematuria, cystic kidney diseases, inherited kidney diseases, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis abnormalities, pregnancy-related kidney disorders, vascular kidney diseases, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, and others.High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when the force of your blood against your artery walls increases enough to cause damage. For people who have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, blood pressure of 130/80 or more is considered high. Have a family history of high blood pressure. your chances of developing high blood pressure may be increased if you: Have chronic kidney disease (CKD), Are overweight. Are African American. Use a lot of table salt, eat a lot of packaged or fast foods,Use birth control pills, Have diabetes,Use illegal drugs, Drink large amounts of alcohol (beer, wine, or liquor). Some types of kidney disease may cause high blood pressure. More often it is high blood pressure that causes kidney disease. High blood pressure can speed up the loss of kidney function in people with kidney disease. Your doctor or nurse practitioner can tell how much kidney damage you’ve had by measuring the amount of protein in your urine and estimating your total kidney function from a simple blood test. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease your target blood pressure is 130/80 or even lower. If your blood pressure is not at target, you may be asked to make the following lifestyle changes: Lose excess weight, Exercise more, Cut down on salt, Cut back on alcohol, Stop smoking.
- Track 3-1Hyperphosphatemia, Hyperuricemia, Hypercalcemia
- Track 3-2Hypertension,CKD and Diabetes
- Track 3-3Renovascular hypertension, Antihypersensitive therapy
- Track 3-4Recent Advances in Glomerular Disorders and Hypertension
- Track 3-5Anemia and Erythropoietin, Renal Osteodystrophy
- Track 3-6Hypertension and Renal Disease in Pregnancy
Nephrotic syndrome is kidney disease with proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is 3 grams per day or more. On a single spot urine collection, it is 2 g of protein per gram of urine creatinine. There are many specific causes of nephrotic syndrome. These include kidney diseases such as minimal-change nephropathy, focal glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy. Nephrotic syndrome can also result from systemic diseases that affect other organs in addition to the kidneys, such as diabetes, amyloidosis, and lupus erythematosus. Nephrotic syndrome may affect adults and children, of both sexes and of any race. It may occur in typical form, or in association with nephritic syndrome. The latter connotesglomerular inflammation, with hematuria and impaired kidney function. Nephrotic syndrome can be primary, being a disease specific to the kidneys, or it can be secondary, being a renal manifestation of a systemic general illness. In all cases, injury to glomeruli is an essential feature.
Primary causes of nephrotic syndrome include the following, in approximate order of frequency: Minimal-change nephropathy, Focal glomerulosclerosis, Membranous nephropathy ,Hereditary nephropathies . Secondary causes include the following, again in order of approximate frequency: Diabetes mellitus, Lupus erythematosus, Amyloidosis and paraproteinemias , Viral infections (eg, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus [ HIV] ).Nephrotic syndrome may occur in persons with sickle cell disease and evolve to renal failure. Membranous nephropathy may complicate bone marrow transplantation, in association with graft versus host disease. Kidney diseases that affect tubules and interstitium, such as interstitial nephritis, will not cause nephrotic syndrome.The above causes of nephrotic syndrome are largely those for adults, and this article will concentrate primarily on adult nephrotic syndrome. However, nephrotic syndrome in infancy and childhood is an important entity. For discussion of this topic, see the Medscape Reference article Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic Syndrome. Early detection can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure,Heart disease is the major cause of death for all people with CKD, Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best estimate of kidney function, Hypertension causes CKD and CKD causes hypertension, Persistent proteinuria (protein in the urine) means CKD is present, High risk groups include those with diabetes, hypertension and family history of kidney failure, African Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, American Indians and Seniors are at increased risk. There are many specific causes of nephrotic syndrome. These include kidney diseases such as minimal-change nephropathy, focal glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy. Nephrotic syndrome can also result from systemic diseases that affect other organs in addition to the kidneys, such as diabetes, amyloidosis, and lupus erythematosus. Nephrotic syndrome may affect adults and children, of both sexes and of any race. It may occur in typical form, or in association with nephritic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome can be primary, being a disease specific to the kidneys, or it can be secondary, being a renal manifestation of a systemic general illness. In all cases, injury to glomeruli is an essential feature.
- Track 4-1 Nephrotic syndrome, Nephritis and Hydronephrosis
- Track 4-2 Cardiorenal Syndrome, Hepatorenal Syndrome
- Track 4-3Nephrotic Syndrome in Children
- Track 4-4Anemia in Chronic Renal Failure
- Track 4-5Renal Pathology, Renal physiology
- Track 4-6Renal Artery Stenosis, Renal Tubular Acidosis
- Track 4-7Hypervolemia–Malnutrition in Renal Failure
Diabetic Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is typically defined by macro albuminuria—that is, a urinary albumin excretion of more than 300 mg in a 24-hour collection—or macro albuminuria and abnormal renal function as represented by an abnormality in serum creatinine, calculated creatinine clearance, or glomerular filteration filtration rate (GFR). Clinically, diabetic nephropathy is characterized by a progressive increase in proteinuria and decline in GFR, hypertension, and a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following: Proteinuria was first recognized in diabetes mellitus in the late 18th century.
By the 1950s, kidney disease was clearly recognized as a common complication of diabetes, with as many as 50% of patients with diabetes of more than 20 years having this complication Currently, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in the United States and other Western societies. It is also one of the most significant long-term complications in terms of morbidity and mortality for individual patients with diabetes. Diabetes is responsible for 30-40% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases in the United States. Generally, diabetic nephropathy is considered after a routine urinalysis and screening for micro albuminuria in the setting of diabetes. Patients may have physical findings associated with long-standing diabetes mellitus. Good evidence suggests that early treatment delays or prevents the onset of diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease. Regular outpatient follow-up is key in managing diabetic nephropathy successfully. Recently, attention has been called to atypical presentations of diabetic nephropathy with dissociation of proteinuria from reduced kidney function. Also noted is that micro albuminuria is not always predictive of diabetic nephropathy
- Track 5-1Diabetic Microvascular Complications, Diabetic Nephropathy
- Track 5-2Nephropathology and Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy
- Track 5-3Contrast Nephropathy, Uric acid Nephropathy
- Track 5-4Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis, IgA Nephropathy
- Track 5-5HIV Associated Nephropathy
- Track 5-6Glycemic Control, Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Renal cystic disease comprises a wide range of disease entities. They can be classified as either (1) hereditary or acquired or (2) systemic or renal confined diseases that have the common feature of multiple renal cysts. Each disease entity differs in its presentation, prognosis, and management. Renal cysts are smooth-walled, fluid-filled circular structures formed by focal outpouching of renal tubules.However, tremendous strides have been made in recent years. For autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD and ARPKD), a picture is starting to emerge. Defects in the primary ciliary sensing mechanisms, intracellular calcium regulation, and cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation all seem to play a role in the altered cellular phenotype and functions.
Today, treatment includes risk modification, management of complications, and renal transplant or dialysis. There is no definitive therapy to eliminate or to retard cyst growth. A better understanding of its pathogenesis offers hope in the near future for correcting the underlying abnormalities in cystic pathways. Advances in genetic techniques are providing novel insights into kidney diseases, especially diagnosis, classification, pathogenesis and therapy. Many congenital kidney diseases are due to single gene defects (eg, some cases of nephrotic syndrome resistant to steroids). It is also becoming clear that some adult-onset kidney diseases - which are far more common - are associated with risk alleles (genetic variants linked to an increased risk of developing certain diseases). An example is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and chronic kidney disease in African-American patients.
- Track 6-1Cystic Diseases of the Kidneys
- Track 6-2Phosphate Disorders
- Track 6-3Bladder Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Prostate Cancer
- Track 6-4Renal Genetics, Genetics in kidney Diseases
- Track 6-5Kidney Failure Due to Hyperparathyroidism and High Blood Calcium
- Track 6-6Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
- Track 6-7Epigenetics and the Kidney
- Track 6-8Genetic/Developmental Disorders
Dialysis is the artificial process of eliminating waste (diffusion) and unwanted water (ultrafiltration) from the blood. Our kidneys do this naturally. Some people, however, may have failed or damaged kidneys which cannot carry out the function properly - they may need dialysis. In other words, dialysis is the artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy replacement therapy).Dialysis may be used for patients who have become ill and have acute kidney failure (temporary loss of kidney function), or for fairly stable patients who have permanently lost kidney function When we are healthy our kidneys regulate our body levels of water and minerals, and remove waste. The kidneys also produce erythropoietin and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) as part of the endocrine system. Dialysis does not correct the endocrine functions of failed kidneys - it only replaces some kidney functions, such as waste removal and fluid removal. Dialysis and altitude - A study published in February 2009 found that death rates for dialysis patients are 10%-15% lower for those whose homes are higher than 4,000 feet, compared to those who live at sea level. Some countries, such as the UK, are predicting a doubling of the number of patients on dialysis machine. Approximately 1,500 liters of blood are filtered by a healthy person's kidneys each day. We could not live if waste products were not removed from our kidneys. People whose kidneys either do not work properly or not at all experience a buildup of waste in their blood. Without dialysis the amount of waste products in the blood would increase and eventually reach levels that would cause coma and death. Dialysis is also used to rapidly remove toxins or drugs from the blood.
There are two main types of dialysis - hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The blood circulates outside the body of the patient - it goes through a machine that has special filters. The blood comes out of the patient through a catheter (a flexible tube) that is inserted into the vein. The filters do what the kidney's do; they filter out the waste products from the blood. The filtered blood then returns to the patient via another catheter. The patient is, in effect, connected to a kind of artificial Kidney. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a therapy that typically is managed by patients at home. The therapy works by cleaning the blood of toxins and removing extra fluids through one of the body’s own membranes, the peritoneal membrane.
- Track 7-1Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplantation
- Track 7-2Progress in Nephrology and Renal Transplantation
- Track 7-3Peritonal Dialysis
- Track 7-4Immunomodulation of Cardio Renal Function
- Track 7-5Nocturnal Hemodialysis, Advancements in Dialysis
- Track 7-6Renal Immunology, Renal Physiology
- Track 7-7Renal Injury, Metabolism, and Fibrosis
- Track 7-8Ethical Issues in kidney Transplantation and Dialysis
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located on either side of the lower back. They are extremely important for the body in that they process waste and toxins before they are sent to the bladder as urine. If the kidney becomes damaged or fails completely, it becomes unable to properly process this waste. This lack of function causes kidney failure, also called renal failure. The kidneys play a vital role in maintaining every day bodily function. They not only filter the blood and get rid of waste, but they also balance out electrolyte levels in the body which help encourage the production of red blood cells and normalize blood pressure. Understanding what kidney failure is will help you better prevent it from occurring. Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, may not present many symptoms in the beginning.
However, as the kidneys continue to decrease in function, they become unable to regulate water and electrolyte balances, clear waste products from the body, and promote red blood cell production which leads to the onset of symptoms including: lethargy, weakness, shortness of breath and occasional swelling. If left untreated, then life-threatening symptoms can occur, which range from heart failure to coma.When kidney function gets significantly reduced due to kidney failure, the damage cannot usually be reversed. However, if the proper steps are taken early enough, then it could slow down the progress of kidney failure or even halt it altogether. The treatment for kidney failure differs depending on what phase the kidney failure is and other individual factors. For those whose kidneys no longer function well enough on their own without renal therapy, specialist will typically recommend either renal dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Track 8-1Kidney Biopsy, Indications, Complications
- Track 8-2Kidney Cancer:Diagnosis, Renal Scintigraphy
- Track 8-3Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Acute Kidney Injury
- Track 8-4Treatments in Nephrology and Renal care
- Track 8-5Treatment for End-Stage kidney Disease
- Track 8-6Nutrition in peritoneal dialysis
Depending on the underlying cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. Often, though, chronic kidney disease has no cure. In general, treatment consists of measures to help control signs and symptoms, reduce complications, and slow progression of the disease. If your kidneys become severely damaged, you may need treatment for end-stage kidney disease. There are four types of medicine that can help people with CKD: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), Angiotensin II receptor blockers/antagonists (ARBs),Beta-blockers, Statins. ACEIs, ARBs, and beta blockers-blockers are all types of medicine used to lower blood pressure, but they work in different ways. ACEIs and ARBs may slow kidney damage even in people who do not have high blood pressure. Statins are a type of medicine used to lower cholesterol. Although medicine cannot reverse chronic kidney disease, it is often used to help treat symptoms and complications and to slow further kidney damage. Most people who have chronic kidney disease have problems with high blood pressure at some time during their disease. Medicines that lower blood pressure help to keep it in a target range and stop any more kidney damage. Common blood pressure medicines include: ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers.
Medicines may be used to treat symptoms and complications of chronic kidney disease. These medicines include: Erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy and iron replacement therapy (iron pills or intravenous iron) for anemia. Medicines for electrolyte imbalances. Diuretics to treat fluid buildup caused by chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitors and ARBs.
- Track 9-1Medicines To Treat Chronic Kidney Disease
- Track 9-2Medicines Used During Dialysis
- Track 9-3Herbal drugs and Renal Failure Medications
- Track 9-4Mechanism of actions of immunosuppressive drugs,Diuretics
- Track 9-5Classification of Medicines Used in Kidney Disorders
- Track 9-6Drugs For Acute Renal Failure
- Track 9-7Kidney Infections- Symptoms and Treatment
Following a healthy lifestyle is good for people with kidney disease, especially if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or both. Talk with your dietitian, diabetes educator, or other health care professional about which actions are most important for you to take. As you will see, many of these actions are related. Keep your blood pressure at the target set by your health care provider. For most people, the blood pressure target is less than 140/90 mm Hg. Aim for less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium each day. If you have diabetes, control your blood glucose level. Good blood glucose control may help prevent or delay diabetes complications, including kidney disease. Keep your blood cholesterol in your target range. Diet, being active, maintaining a healthy weight, and medicines can all help control your blood cholesterol level. Take medicines the way your provider tells you to. What you eat and drink may help slow down kidney disease. Some foods may be better for your kidneys than others. Most of the salt and sodium additives people eat come from prepared foods, not from the salt shaker. Cooking your food from scratch gives you control over what you eat. Your provider may suggest you see a dietitian. A dietitian can teach you how to choose foods that are easier on your kidneys about sodium, protein, phosphorus, potassium, and how to read food labels. The steps below will help you eat right as you manage your kidney disease.
Cigarette smoking can make kidney damage worse. Get or become more active. Physical activity is good for your blood pressure, as well as your blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels. Lose Lose Weight if you are overweight. Being overweight makes your kidneys work harder. Losing weight helps your kidneys last longer. The lifestyle changes you should make may depend on the type of kidney disease that you have, but doctors usually suggest a change in your diet and frequent exercise. Protein, potassium, and sodium put stress on the kidneys, so suggested diets are usually low in these ingredients. You may also have to make dietary changes that will help treat complications of kidney disease, such as high cholesterol. If you are healthy enough to exercise, it can help you maintain your energy and manage stress. Especially for the sake of the quality of your life, do your best to keep up the everyday activities that make you happy and help you lead a fulfilling life. You may need to take one or more medications to reach your target blood pressure if you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Your doctor may prescribe high blood pressure medications called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Studies show that these medicines help protects your kidneys.
- Track 10-1Loss of Kidney Function Linked to Obesity
- Track 10-2Diet with Kidney Failure
- Track 10-3Renal Dietitians, Renal Supplements
- Track 10-4Herbal Supplements for the Kidneys
- Track 10-5Life style changes